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Myeloma - Diagnosis & Treatment

Multiple myeloma, also sometimes called simply myeloma, is a cancer of plasma cells, a type of white blood cell found in the bone marrow. These abnormal plasma cells can crowd out healthy blood cells and cause complications like bone pain, anaemia, and kidney problems.

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Myeloma Diagnosis

Diagnosing multiple myeloma involves a series of tests and evaluations.

Your myeloma assessment begins at the hospital with a consultation with a haematologist. These specialists are equipped with the expertise to guide you through the diagnostic process.

From there, blood tests play an essential role. These tests can reveal abnormal levels of certain proteins and other substances indicative of myeloma.

A urine test is also important. It detects Bence Jones proteins, which are specific types of light chain proteins. These proteins can sometimes cause kidney damage.

Finally, a bone marrow test is crucial for a definitive diagnosis. This procedure involves taking a small sample of bone marrow, usually from your hip bone.

Imaging tests may also contribute to your diagnosis.

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Stages Of Myeloma

Revised International Staging System (RISS)

RISS is a tool that helps doctors predict how well a patient might respond to treatment. It considers four key factors to assess the aggressiveness of the cancer:

  • Albumin Levels:

This protein in your blood indicates overall health.

  • Beta-2 Microglobulin (B2M):

Elevated levels of B2M are typically seen in multiple myeloma.

  • Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH):

High levels of this enzyme suggest a more advanced stage of the disease.

  • Genetic Changes in Cancer Cells:

Certain genetic alterations can signify a more aggressive form of myeloma.

Using these markers, the cancer is staged between stage I and III:

  • In stage I, the disease is in its least aggressive form. Treatment at this stage can be most effective.

  • Stage II is marked by a decrease in albumin levels.

  • Stage III is characterised by significantly high levels of B2M, indicating widespread and advanced disease.


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Schedule a Video Consultation or a Face-to-Face appointment at your convenience by using our online booking system.

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Schedule a Video Consultation or a Face-to-Face appointment at your convenience by using our online booking system.

Your dedicated Specialist Doctor will provide you with personalized treatment, tailoring it to your specific needs, and may include necessary medication.

Myeloma Treatment

Myeloma treatment is tailored to your specific needs, considering factors like the symptoms you're experiencing and your overall health.


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Initial Treatment Strategy

Typically, the first line of treatment involves a combination of chemotherapy, targeted cancer drugs, and steroids. This multifaceted approach aims to control the disease.

Managing Relapses

Myeloma can sometimes relapse, meaning the disease returns after a period of remission. In such cases, additional treatments are necessary, and the options may vary based on your situation.

Role of Stem Cell Transplant

Stem cell transplants are a significant component of myeloma treatment. This procedure allows you to receive high doses of chemotherapy to eradicate damaged bone marrow cells. Post-chemotherapy, new stem cells are introduced into your bloodstream to rebuild healthy bone marrow.

Using Radiotherapy

Radiotherapy helps address areas where myeloma has weakened bones or is causing pain. It can reduce discomfort and slow down further bone damage.

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Living With Myeloma

Living with myeloma involves not just treating the cancer itself but also managing various symptoms and problems that arise from the disease and its treatments. Supportive treatments are essential to prevent or control these issues.

Communicate any concerns with your doctor or nurse. They can provide:

  • Medications:

To manage symptoms and improve quality of life

  • Equipment:

To aid in daily living and mobility

  • Symptom Control Strategies:

Tailored to your specific needs

  • Referrals:

To specialists or symptom control teams, such as palliative care, for comprehensive support


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Living with myeloma involves not just treating the cancer itself but also managing various symptoms and problems that arise from the disease and its treatments. Supportive treatments are essential to prevent or control these issues.

Communicate any concerns with your doctor or nurse. They can provide:

  • Medications:

To manage symptoms and improve quality of life

  • Equipment:

To aid in daily living and mobility

  • Symptom Control Strategies:

Tailored to your specific needs

  • Referrals:

To specialists or symptom control teams, such as palliative care, for comprehensive support


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Connect With Our Specialists

If you or a loved one is dealing with a myeloma diagnosis, our dedicated team of haematologists in London is here to provide compassionate, personalised care.

We understand the intricacies of this condition and are committed to offering the support and medical expertise you need at every stage of your journey.

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