Blood Cancer - Diagnosis & Treatment

Blood cancer is a broad term encompassing various cancers that affect the cells produced in your bone marrow. These cancers disrupt the normal production of healthy blood cells, leading to imbalances that can cause symptoms like fatigue, infections, and bleeding. There are different types of blood cancers, each with its own characteristics.

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Blood Cancer Diagnosis

Your blood cancer assessment starts with a comprehensive physical exam. Your healthcare team will review your health history, carefully examine your body and lymph nodes, and look for any signs of infection or unusual bruising.

From there, you may need to take one or more blood tests:

  • Complete Blood Count (CBC):

This test gives a detailed count of the different cells in your blood.

  • Blood Chemistry Tests:

These measure substances in your blood that can indicate your condition.

In your diagnosis, biopsies can also be a vital tool, acting like a blood cancer test:

  • Lymph Node Biopsy:

A small tissue sample from your lymph nodes may be taken for analysis if lymphoma is suspected.

  • Bone Marrow Aspiration:

A procedure is performed to collect a sample from your hip or breastbone to check for cancers that start in the bone marrow. This sample helps to identify abnormal cells and genetic changes.

Depending on the type of blood cancer suspected, various imaging scans might be used:

  • CT, MRI, and PET Scans:

These can reveal enlarged lymph nodes or other affected areas in your body.

  • X-rays and Ultrasound:

These might be used alongside biopsies to locate areas for sampling.


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Stages of Blood Cancer

Staging is a critical process in cancer care. It provides detailed information about the type, location, and extent of cancer, essential for tailoring your treatment plan. Unlike solid tumours, blood cancers require unique staging systems.

Your doctor will guide you through the staging of your specific blood cancer, which generally includes evaluating:

  • Blood cell counts

  • Size and number of cancer cells

  • Genetic mutations

  • Cancer spread to other organs

  • Bone damage

  • Enlargement of liver or spleen


In addition to staging, doctors also grade non-Hodgkin lymphomas based on their growth patterns and aggressiveness:

  • Low Grade:

These are slow-growing cancers.

  • Intermediate Grade: 

These are cancers with a moderate growth rate.

  • High Grade:

These are fast-growing and more aggressive forms of cancer.


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Schedule a Video Consultation or a Face-to-Face appointment at your convenience by using our online booking system.

Your dedicated Specialist Doctor will provide you with personalized treatment, tailoring it to your specific needs, and may include necessary medication.

Blood Cancer Treatment

Each type of blood cancer has tailored treatments based on its characteristics. Learning more about the specific treatments for each type can empower you with knowledge and prepare you for discussions with your healthcare team.

Here are some common treatment methods:


Stem Cell Transplantation

This involves infusing healthy blood-forming stem cells into your body.


This treatment uses drugs to stop the growth of cancer cells.

Radiation Therapy

Used to either destroy cancer cells or alleviate pain and discomfort, radiation therapy may be administered before a stem cell transplant.

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Connect with Our Specialists

If you're living with a blood cancer diagnosis, our team is ready to provide you with comprehensive care and support. Book an appointment with our London-based haematologists today to discuss your diagnosis and treatment options.


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